Dr. Sikder Md. Anowarul Islam
Technological advancement increased economic growth and productivity. But the income inequality increased between rich and poor substantially in whole over the world. Especially income disparity between and amongst the countries are substantial. Increasing productivity of industry and service sector will increase standard of living of the people and the society. But without increasing productivity of agricultural sector, especially for availability of per capita access of sufficient food for survival is essential for further technological advancement and population growth.
The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”. Commonly, the concept of food security is defined as including both physical and economic access to food that meets people’s dietary needs as well as their food preferences. In many countries, health problems related to dietary excess are an ever increasing threat, In fact, malnutrion and foodborne diarrhea are become double burden.
Food security is built on three pillars:
Food availability: sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent basis.
Food access: having sufficient resources to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet.
Food use: appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation.
Food security is a complex steady state development issue, linked to health through malnutrition and poverty, but also to sustainable economic development, environment, and trade. There is a great deal of debate around food security with some arguing that: There is enough food in the world to feed everyone adequately; the problem is distribution. Future food needs can – or cannot – be met by current levels of production. National food security is paramount – or no longer necessary because of global trade. Globalization may – or may not – lead to the persistence of food insecurity and poverty in rural communities. Issues such as, whether households get enough food, and how it is distributed within the household, and whether that food fulfils the nutrition needs of all members of the household, and accordingly show that food security is clearly linked to health security.
Agriculture remains the largest employment sector in most developing countries and international agriculture agreements are crucial to a country’s food security. Some critics argue that trade liberalization may reduce a country’s food security by reducing agricultural employment levels. Concern about this has led a group of World Trade Organization (WTO) member states to recommend that current negotiations on agricultural agreements allow developing countries to re-evaluate and raise tariffs on key products to protect national food security and employment. They argue that WTO agreements, by pushing for the liberalization of crucial markets, are threatening the food security of whole communities.
According to WHO statements, it is presumed that the target of achieving of food security is under challenged due to climate change and rapid urbanization. High density of population and urbanization have been increased the consumption and productivity of different regional areas to penetrate consumer and industrial luxury goods. But the distribution of future income and consumption is still caused high distortion value if the global productivity is not sufficient enough to meet the requirements of equality and justice for global income distribution. Industrialized countries have substantial challenge to stabilize their food production due to increase of labor incentive technology and accordingly cost of labor. Environment friendly production of agricultural goods and services are the core challenge of increasing productivity and export earnings in leased developed countries in Asia. Asian countries are increasing their agricultural productivity and became the largest surplus reasons by 2020. While other parts of the world, especially Latin America and Carrabin and Sub- Saharan African nations can increase their food production by increasing their research development in accordance their climate and resource.
We are still in the age of global disparity and inequality of income redistribution. Aging problem is a big challenge for industrialized countries to increase their economic growth and productivity. Per capita income increasing faster in developing countries to catch in high income countries, but this convergence process may cause high inflation in availability of per capita food in world market. (Reference and Data Source: WHO, FAO, World Bank and Others)